We examine osteoporosis prevention, body composition assessment and pediatric overweight. Our primary research focuses on bone responses to dietary and physical activity interventions and the links between overweight and bone quality in children.

Research Projects

OVERALL GOAL:

To examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation on bone health & growth in early pubertal children

Study Design:

12-week longitudinal, double-blind, placebo controlled study
Multi-site study (The University of Georgia, Purdue University & Indiana University School of Medicine)
Participants: 320 children: 9-12 year old girls & 10-13 year old boys
Bone biomarkers, body composition, physical activity and dietary intakes assessed at baseline, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-weeks of supplementation
Funded by NIH

Key Publications:

Berger P.K., Pollock N.K., Laing E.M., Warden S.J., Hill Gallant K.M., Hausman D.B., Baile C.A., Tripp R.A., McCabe L.D., McCabe G.P., Weaver C.M., Peacock M., Lewis, R.D. Association of adenovirus 36 infection with adiposity and inflammation-related markers in children. 2104 J Clin Endocrinol Metab. In Press.

Lewis R.D., Laing E.M., Hill Gallant K.M., Hall D.B., McCabe G.P., Martin B.R., Warden S.J., Peacock M., Weaver C.M. Vitamin D3 supplementation in children: dose-response effects on vitamin D metabolites and calcium absorption. 2013 Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. 98(12):4816-4825.

Warden S.J., Laing E.M., Ferira A.J., Hill K.H., Martin B.R., Weaver C.M., Peacock M., Hausman D.B., Lewis R.D. (2013) Racial Differences in Cortical Bone and their Relationship to Biochemical Variables in Early Pubertal Children. Osteoporosis International. 24:1869-1879.

Hill K.M., Laing E.M., Hausman D.B., Acton A., Martin B.R., McCabe G.P., Weaver C.M., Lewis R.D., Peacock M. (2012) Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Does Not Influence Bone Turnover in Healthy Black and White Early-Pubertal Children. Bone. 51(4):795-9.

Weaver C.M., Lewis R.D., Laing E.M. (2011) Vitamin D in Skeletal Growth and Development. In: Translational Endocrinology & Metabolism Vitamin D Update, Volume 2, Number 3 (pp. 43-60). Endocrine Society.

OVERALL GOAL: 

To examine the relationship between body composition and bone strength in late-adolescent females

Study Design:

Cross sectional study
Participants: 160 non-Hispanic White and Black females, aged 18-19 years
Bone geometry, bone densitometry, metabolic parameters, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, physical activity and dietary intakes assessed

Key Publications:

Kindler J.M., Goff-Ross H.L., Laing, E.M., Modlesky C.M., Pollock N.K., Baile C.A., Lewis R.D. Load-specific physical activity scores are related to tibia bone architecture. 2013 International Journal of Sport Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. In Press.

Laing E.M., Tripp R.A., Pollock N.K., Baile C.A., Della-Fera, M.A., Rayalam S., Tompkins S.M., Keys D.A., Lewis R.D. (2013) Adenovirus 36, Adiposity and Bone Strength in Late-Adolescent Females. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 28(3):489-96.

Pollock N.K., Laing E.M., Taylor R.G., Baile C.A., Hall D.B., Hamrick M.W., & Lewis, R.D. (2011) Comparisons of trabecular and cortical bone in late adolescent females, J Bone Miner Metab, 29:44-53.

Pollock N.K., Laing E.M., Taylor R.G., Baile C.A., Hall D.B., Hamrick M.W., & Lewis, R.D. (2011) Bone and fat relationships in postadolescent black females: A pQCT study, Osteoporos Int, 22:655-65.

Pollock N.K., Laing, E.M., Baile C.A., Hamrick M.W., Hall D.B., Lewis R.D. (2007) Is adiposity advantageous for bone strength? A pQCT study in late adolescent females, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 86:1530-8.

OVERALL GOAL:

To conduct a 20-year prospective review of the long term effects of collegiate gymnastics participation on bone density

Study Design:

Subjects recruited will be among a sample of 33 women who participated in this resesarch in 1993-94 and 2003-04.

Key Publications:

Pollock, N.P., Laing, E.M., Modlesky, C.M., O’Connor, P.J., & Lewis, R.D. (2006) Former College Artistic Gymnasts Maintain Higher BMD: A Nine-Year Follow-Up, Osteoporosis International, 17:1691-7.

O’Connor, P.J., Lewis, R.D., Kirchner, E., & Cook, D.B. (1996) Eating Disorder Symptoms in Former Female College Gymnasts:  Relations with Body Composition, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64, 840-843.

Kirchner, E.M., Lewis, R.D., & O’Connor, P J. (1996) Effects of past gymnastic participation on adult bone mass, Journal of Applied Physiology, 80, 226-232.

OVERALL GOAL:

To examine the effects of zinc supplementation on bone turnover in early pubertal children

Study Design:

4-week longitudinal, double blind, placebo controlled study
Participants: 160 female children, aged 9-11 years
Bone biomarkers, physical activity and dietary intakes assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks of supplementation
Funded by NIH

Key Publications:

Berger P.K., Laing E.M., Pollock N.K., Chertin V., Grider A., Shapses S.A., Ding K.H., Isales C.M., Lewis R.D. Zinc supplementation enhances bone formation in premenarcheal females: a randomized controlled trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. In Review.

Grider A., Lewis R.D., Laing E.M., Wickwire K. (2014) Low-Abundance Plasma Protein Differences Between African-American and Caucasian Early Pubertal Females Following Supplementation with 9 mg Zn. Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (Abstract).

Grider A., Lewis R.D., Laing E.M., Wickwire K. (2013) Supplementation with zinc affects serum microRNA (miRNA) levels in early pubertal females. Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology (Abstract).

Lewis R.D., Pollock, N.K., Laing E.M., Bernard P., Grider A., Shapses S., Ding K.H., Isales C. (2011) Zinc Supplementation Improves Bone Formation in Early Pubertal Females. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 26 (Suppl 1; Abstract).

Grider A., Atwell L.L., Lewis R.D., Laing E.M., Wickwire K. (2011) Proteomic Analysis of Serum From Early Pubertal Females Supplemented with Zinc. Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 25, 284.8.

Aburto, N.J., Laing, E.M., Wilson A.R., Hardy, K.H., Modlesky, C.M., & Lewis, R.D. (2003) Zinc intake is positively correlated with bone parameters in prepubertal girls. Journal of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, 17(4) (Abstract).

OVERALL GOAL:

To examine the long-term effects of exercise, nutrition and body composition on bone health in young girls

Study Design:

Longitudinal study (began in Fall 1997)
Participants: 202 young girls aged 4-8 years who had no or limited involvement in organized physical activity
Bone mineral content, body composition, serum bone biomarkers and vitamin D, physical activity, and dietary intakes assessed annually
Funded by NICHD

Key Publications:

Berger P.K., Laing E.M., Pollock N.K., Baxter-Jones A.D.G., Daly R.M., Erlandson M.C., Lewis, R.D. From beam to bone: the effects of artistic gymnastics on skeletal health. 2014 In Preparation.

Malina R.M., Baxter-Jones A., Armstrong N., Beunen G.P., Caine D., Daly R.M., Lewis R.D., Rogol A., Russell K., (2013) Effects of Intensive Training on Growth and Maturation of Pre-Pubertal and Pubertal Athletes in Artistic Gymnastics, Proceedings from Federation Internationale de Gymnastique Scientific Commission’s Growth Colloquium, Sports Medicine. 43:783-802.

Breen, M.E., Laing, E.M., Hall, D.B., Hausman, D.B., Taylor, R.G., Isales, C.M., Ding, K.H., Pollock N.K., Hamrick M.W., Baile C.A., & Lewis R.D. (2011) 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, insulin-like growth factor-I and bone mineral accrual during growth, J Clin Endocrinol Met, 96:E89-98.

Willis, C.M., Laing, E.M., Hall, D.B., Hausman, D.B., & Lewis, R.D. (2007) A prospective Analysis of Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D Concentrations in White and Black Prepubertal Females in the Southeastern United States, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85:124-30.

Stein, E.M., Laing, E.M., Hall, D.B., Hausman D., Kimlin, M., Johnson MA., Modlesky, C.M., Wilson, A.R., & Lewis, R.D. (2006) Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D concentrations in girls aged 4-8 y living in the Southeastern United States, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 83:75-81.

Laing, E.M., Wilson, A.R., Modlesky, C.M., O’Connor, P.J., Hall, D.B., & Lewis, R.D.  (2005) Initial Years of Recreational Artistic Gymnastics Training Improves Lumbar Spine Bone Mineral Accrual in 4-8 Year Old Females, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 20(3):509-19.

Wilson, A.M.R. & Lewis, R.D. (2004) Disagreement of energy and macronutrient intakes estimated from a food frequency questionnaire and 3-day diet record in girls 4 to 9 years of age, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, Mar;104(3), 373-8.

Poudevigne, M.S., O'Connor, P.J., Laing, E.M., Wilson, A.R., Modlesky, C.M., and Lewis, R.D. (2003) Body Images of 4-8 Year Old Girls at the Outset of Their First Gymnastics Class, The International Journal of Eating Disorders, Sep;34(2), 244-50.

Modlesky, C.M. and Lewis, R.D. (2002) Does exercise during growth have a long-term effect on bone health? Exerc Sport Sci Rev, 30(4):171-6.

Laing, E.M., Massoni, J.A., Nickols-Richardson, S.M., Modlesky, C.M., O’Connor, P.J., & Lewis, R.D. (2002) A prospective study of bone mass and body composition in female adolescent gymnasts, Journal of Pediatrics,141:211-6.

Caine, D., Lewis, R.D., O’Connor, P.J., & Howe, W. (2001) The effect of diet and intensive training on the growth and maturation of female gymnasts, Clinical Journal of Sports Medicine, 11:260-70.

Nickols-Richardson, S.M., Modlesky, C.M., O'Connor, P.J., & Lewis, R.D. (2000) Premenarcheal gymnasts possess higher bone mineral density than controls, Medicine, Science, Sports, and Exercise, 32(1), 63-69.

Nickols-Richardson, S.M., O'Connor, P.J., Shapses, S.A., & Lewis, R.D. (1999)  Longitudinal Bone Mineral Density Changes in Female Child Gymnasts, Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 14(6), 994-1002.

OVERALL GOAL:

To examine the effect of soy isoflavones on weight gain attenuation and bone healthy on female college freshmen.

Study Design:

16-week longitudinal, double blind, placebo controlled study (began in Fall 2005)
Participants: 120 female college freshmen aged 18-19 years
Body composition, blood biomarkers, physical activity, and dietary intake measured every 8-weeks
Funded by UGARF and The University of Georgia College of Family and Consumer Sciences

Key Publications:

Berger P.K., Principe J.L., Laing E.M., Henley E.C., Pollock N.K., Taylor R.G., Blair R.M., Baile C.A., Hall D.B., Lewis R.D. Weight gain in college females is not prevented by isoflavone-rich soy protein: a randomized controlled trial. 2014 Nutrition Research. 34:66-73.

OVERALL GOAL:

To determine the efficacy and safety of soy isoflavone supplementation on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women

Study Design:

Two year longitudinal, double blind, placebo controlled study (began in 2002)
Three-site study (The University of Georgia, Baylor College of Medicine, University of California, Davis)
Participants: 400 healthy postmenopausal women who were not taking estrogen or hormone replacement therapy
Bone mineral density, bone biomarkers, physical activity, and dietary intakes assessed annually
Mammograhic density is currently being assessed to determine the safety of soy isoflavones
Funded by USDA and NIH

Key Publications:

Steinberg F.M., Murray M.J., Lewis R.D., Cramer M.A., Amato P., Young R.L., Barnes S., Konzelmann K.L., Fischer J.G., Ellis K.J., Shypailo R.J., Fraley J.K., Smith E.O., & Wong W.W.  (2011) Clinical outcomes of a 2-year soy isoflavone supplementation in menopausal women, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.  93(2):356-67.

Wong W.W., Lewis R.D., Steinberg F.M., Murray M.J., Cramer M.A., Amato P., Young R.L., Barnes S., Ellis K.J., Shypailo R.J., Fraley J.K., Konzelmann K.L., Fischer J.G., & Smith E.O. (2009) Soy isoflavone supplementation and bone mineral density in menopausal women: a 2-y multicenter clinical trial, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 90:1433-9.

Maskarinec G., Verheus M., Steinberg F.M., Amato P., Cramer M.K., Lewis R.D., Murray M.J., Young R.L., Wong W.W.  (2009) Various doses of soy isoflavone do not modify mammographic density in postmenopausal women, Journal of Nutrition, 139(5):981-6

OVERALL GOAL:

PLAY is a three-year policy research initiative to identify strategies to increase physical activity, decrease sedentary behaviors and prevent childhood overweight. Partners include the Georgia State University Institute of Public Health, The University of Georgia, the Medical College of Georgia, and the Georgia Center for Obesity and Related Disorders. Funded by Healthcare Georgia Foundation.

Key Publications:

Eriksen M., Hepburn V., Okosun I., Kanto W., Barbeau P., Treiber F., Harshfield G., Muir A., Young-Hyman D., Mullis R., Lewis R. & Laing E. Addressing Overweight: Model Nutrition Practices for Children and Families 2009 Policy Leadership for Active Youth (PLAY) Policy Brief.

Mullis, R.M., Eriksen, M., Lyn, R., Lewis, R.D., Young-Hyman, D.  Addressing Overweight: The Role of Communities in Promoting Physical Activity. (Spring 2008) PLAY Policy Brief.

Lewis, R.D., Yurman, K., Mullis, R., Lyn, R. Georgia Policy Opportunities: Childhood Obesity. Child and Family Policy Initiative, Carl Vinson Institute of Government, College of Family and Consumer Sciences, pp 1-12, January 2008.

Eriksen M., Hepburn V., Okosun I., Kanto W., Barbeau P., Treiber F., Harshfield G., Muir A., Young-Hyman D., Mullis R., Lewis R., & Laing E. (2007) Addressing Overweight: The Role of Parents and Families. PLAY Policy Brief.

Lewis R., Teems J., Eriksen M., Hepburn V., Okosun I., Kanto W., Barbeau P., Treiber F., Harshfield G., Muir A., Young-Hyman D., Mullis R., & Laing E. (2006) Addressing Overweight Severity in Children and Adolescents. PLAY Policy Brief.

Eriksen M., Hepburn V., Okosun I., Kanto W., Barbeau P., Treiber F., Harshfield G., Muir A., Young-Hyman D., Mullis R., Lewis R., & Laing E. (2006) Addressing Overweight: The Role of Physical Activity. PLAY Summit Brief.

Eriksen M., Hepburn V., Okosun I., Kanto W., Barbeau P., Treiber F., Harshfield G., Muir A., Young-Hyman D., Mullis R., Lewis R., & Laing E. (2006) Addressing Overweight: The Role of Physical Activity. A Summary of the Findings From a Strategic Planning Summit. PLAY Policy Brief.

Eriksen M., Hepburn V., Okosun I., Kanto W., Barbeau P., Treiber F., Harshfield G., Muir A., Young-Hyman D., Mullis R., Lewis R., & Laing E. (2005) Addressing Overweight: Interventions Tailored to the Rural South. PLAY Policy Brief.

Eriksen M., Hepburn V., Okosun I., Kanto W., Barbeau, P., Treiber F., Harshfield G., Muir A., Young-Hyman D., Mullis R., Lewis R., & Laing E. (2005) HealthVoices: Addressing Overweight- The Role of Physical Activity in Schools. PLAY Policy Brief.

Barbeau P., Eriksen M., Hepburn V., Okosun I., Kanto W., Treiber F., Harshfield G., Muir A., Young-Hyman D., Mullis R., Lewis R., & Laing E. (2005) School-based physical activity interventions to prevent or treat childhood overweight: A Summary of Research and Findings, Policy Leadership for Active Youth Research Paper.

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